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May 10, 2020



Precast and Polishing the tiles is a very practical and beautiful option for covering the floor and walls, since setting the tiles is much faster than laying floors on site. Custom tiles, used

1)  Plain cement and plain coloured tiles


2)  Terrazzo tiles /Marble mosaic tiles


3)  Chequered cement tiles


4)  Glazed Wall/floor tiles


5)  Vitrified tiles


6)  Marble stone tiles or slabs


7)  Granite stone tiles or slabs


8)  Paver blocks

1.  Plain Cement And Plain Coloured Tiles


These tiles are available in 200x200x20mm, 250x250x22 mm and 300x300x25 mm. The wearing top layer of 5-6 mm containing quartz sand and cement could be plain or added with pigment for the desired colour. These are manufactured as per I.S.:1237-1980 and tiles so manufactured have an

I.S. identification mark on each tile. These tiles are manufactured for

a)     General-purpose

b)     Heavy duty.

The requirements are as under,


Public use areas and other areas where wear is expected to be greatest should be provided with high-strength tiles. However, it is observed that in heavily used areas such as PF surfaces at railway stations etc. these tiles wear out very quickly, probably due to poor quality control and tiles not manufactured with strict I.S. Specifications.

2. Terrazzo Tiles/Marble Mosaic Tiles


These tiles are also available in sizes 200x200x20mm, 250x250x22mm and 300x300x25mm. These are also manufactured in accordance with I.S.1237. Specifications are identical to plain tiles except that the wear layer

Contains marble chips, 0 No. to 5 No., marble powder and cement (gray or white depending on the color) in the case of terrazzo tiles and marble chips that vary from 0 to 20 mm. in tiles Chips larger than No.5 must have a flat surface and these are pressed against tiles with a wider exposed surface. These tiles are for general use and heavy duty areas only. "Heavy-duty" tiles are also manufactured and must be used.

These tiles are pre-polished; however, they require finishing polishing with 320 No and 400 No. fine-grained carborundum blocks.

3. Chequered Tiles


Chequered tiles provide a non-slip surface in all rain conditions etc. and therefore they are used only for external floors. These are also used to delimit the edge of the platform, etc. for blind people. Chequered tiles are available in smooth or terrazzo finish. These are manufactured according to

IS. 13801-1993. These tiles are also available in sizes 200x200x22mm, 250x250x22mm and 300x300x25mm. and are manufactured in virtually the same way as smooth or terrazzo tiles, except that there are grooves not less than 3mm deep, with a centre to centre spacing of 25-50mm, on the wear surface. Various patterns are available on the top use surface. Specifications for these tiles are similar to plain/coloured or terrazzo tiles in regards to water absorption, dimensions and defects etc. The wear resistance, when measured according to I.S.1237, must not exceed 2 mm.

It is noted that Chequered tiles tiles are made in various thicknesses of 30mm or even 40mm, depending mainly on the dimensions of the plane, but in no way can it guarantee the durability or additional performance of thicker tiles. The property that is important is "wear resistance" and that is provided on the wear surface on top. The tiles must have an I.S. identification mark on the back.

Chequered tiles for stair treads are available in different designs. These tiles have a greater thickness than is required for greater resistance in the nose area. The minimum thickness of these tiles is 30mm, the front of the tile for a minimum length of 75mm, including the nose has grooves parallel to the nose, in the centre to the centre of 25mm and the balance part of the tile has normal pictures. It must be secured while fixing the tread tile that goes directly to the elevator and must be embedded in the elevator or plaster on the elevator up to 12mm.

4. Glazed Wall/Floor Tiles


These tiles are manufactured in various sizes 300x300 mm, 200x200 mm, 300x200 mm, 250x200 mm, 150x150 mm, 200x100 mm, 200x150 mm.  The top surface is glazed.

Floor tiles are normally used of matt finish whereas the wall tiles are glossy finish. The properties of glazed tiles areas under,


These tiles are for general purpose only and not for public areas.

5. Vitrified Tiles


Vitrified tiles are available in a very wide range of colors and designs. These are manufactured according to I.S.13712-1993. The main difference between glazed and vitrified tiles is hardness, scratch resistance and water absorption.

The properties of vitrified ceramic tiles are as under,


These tiles have a high level of polish and must be handled with care in addition to offering a slippery surface, even when not wet. Therefore, they are used in highly selected interior door locations, where people movement is minimal and a very high level of brightness is required. These tiles, since they have a much lower water absorption, should normally be fixed with special adhesives, grouts and joint fillers. However these are also being fixed quite satisfactorily using cement grout etc

They are available in a wide variety of colours and are usually of the following types:

Double Charged Vitrified Tiles: In this process, two kinds of colour are fed into the machine resulting in a very thick layer of a double coloured design on the tile. This layer of colour and design is around 3-4mm thick.

Full Body Vitrified Tiles: In this method, the scratches on the tiles become invisible because the tile is homogeneous and coloured throughout.

Soluble Salt Vitrified Tiles: In these types of tiles, soluble salts are used to penetrate into the vitrified tile and give colour, designs and create patterns on the tile.

Glazed Body Vitrified Tile: Glazed body vitrified tiles are tiles that are finished with a layer of liquid glass.

6. Marble Stone Tiles/Slabs


Marble is a natural rock of crystallized limestone and is available in several colors, shades and different qualities. Thinner marble tiles are also available these days. Different marbles are known by their color and the area from which they were extracted. The rates are also different in the same wide range depending on the purity and texture. The marble has a pleasant appearance and takes a good polish but has a poor abrasion property, which should not be used for areas with heavy use.

Coloured marbles include black marble, black zebra marble, green marble, pink marble, grey marble, brown marble etc.

Very superior marble in a variety of colours is also imported from Italy, which is even costlier than granite tiles/slabs.

The properties of Indian marble are as under,

Crushing Strength(Kg/cm2): 720

Water absorption (%): 0.4%

Thickness available:
Tiles-18mm-24mm (+1.5mm)
Slabs- 50mm-150 mm(+2mm)

The tiles are cut by machine in standard sizes varying between 600x600 mm and 100x100 mm in different combinations of length and width. Finer grain marbles get better polishing. The upper surface must be free of any defect such as cavities, holes, cracks, etc. and the corners must be perfect without any breakage. It is very important that the slabs/tiles used in an area are of uniform color and texture if the marble is striated, it must be in one direction only, that is to say in the direction of the length or the width if they are not square.


     ·       Kotah Stone
     ·       Tandoor Stone
     ·       Shahbad Stone


Good judgment comes with experience. It is preferable to keep 3 samples of polished tiles, one from each of the Kotah, Tandoor and Shahbad stones for comparison with the material received on the site, even if the doubt persists, that the opinion of the reputed test house is taken. All corners and edges of the tiles must be true, square and free of chips and the surface must be completely flat.

7. Granite Tiles/Slabs


Granite is the hardest natural stone available and its slabs/tiles have a very shiny enamel. Among the slabs/tiles, this is the most expensive item. These are used on the floors/walls of large hotel rooms for a decorative finish. They have the very high abrasion resistance and a scratch hardness of 6, MOH.

Granite stone slabs are traditionally used for tabletops, kitchen work tables, and sometimes in places of worship, for their ability to be cleaned under running water with or without detergents to a very high degree. However, these can also be used for very heavy interior areas. However, the downside is the very low "slip resistance" of polished granite floors. This coefficient is greatly reduced if the surface becomes wet, either due to spills or rainwater reaching the floor. The flame cut of the polished granite slab increases the roughness of the slab/slab, but also removes the smooth, shiny surface for which this type of floor is chosen in the first place.

Granite stones slabs come under different colours and textures. 

There are fine-textured stones and wide textured stones. The colour can be pink, rust, green, a mix of green and pink, beige, black, black with white spots, brown, grey with black spots or white with grey spots, etc. The rate is also different for different colours, textures, gloss, etc. Slabs/tiles are machine cut and polished when received on site. Normally, it is preferred to receive the supply of natural stone tile/slab as per sample.

The normal field tests as applicable to any floor tile have to be done for granite stone tiles/ slabs. A special focus has to be on the gloss and finish and uniformity of colour. All angles and edges should be true, square and free of chippings and the surface shall be fully plane.





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