**Definition of load
in construction**

** **

The weight or
force on a beam, joint, slab, column, etc. The load is the most important
engineering factor when designing structural elements.

** **

*It can
be a live load or a dead load.*

Loads cause deformations,
displacements and stresses, in structures

** **

__Load Calculation of Column, Beam, Wall, and Slab__

**Numbers of floors x ****Column’s**** self-weight**

**Self-weight of the ****Beam**** per running meter**

**load of ****Wall**** per running meter**

**Total load on ****Slab**** = Live load ( due to movement on human
walk)+ Self Weight + Dead Load (like furniture and other things) **

In
addition to the above loads, the columns have bending moments so the some factors
consider in the final design.

The most effective way to configure the framework is to use the advanced configuration
software such as

The tools Etabs
and Staad pro make manual calculations for structural design time-consuming and
avoid the difficult method. Today it is highly recommended in the field of the structural design.

But we will teach you some basic assumptions
for structural load calculations.

__COLUMN LOAD CALCULATION__

As we know,

Self-weight of Concrete = 2400
kg/m3 = 240 kN

Self-weight of Steel is around
8000 kg/m3 = 800 kN

**So,**

We will
take column size as 230 mm x 230 mm with 3 meters standard height and 2% steel,
the self-weight of the column is around 1000 kg (10 kn) per floor.

Volume of Concrete = 0.23 x
0.23 x 3 = 0.1587 m³

Weight of Concrete = 0.1587 x
2400 = 380.88 kg

Weight of Steel (2%) in
Concrete = 0.1587 x 0.02 x 8000 = 25.392kg

Total Weight of Column = 380.88
+ 25.392 = 406.272kg = 4KN

Thus, we can assume the self
weight of column size 230 mm x 230 mm is between 4 to 5 kn per floor.

__FACTOR OF SAFETY__

In conclusion, after
calculating the full load on a column, do not forget to add the safety factor,
which for any building designer is very important for the safe and comfortable
performance of the building during his design lifetime.

This is important when
calculating the load on the column.

According to IS456: 2000, the safety factor is 1.5.

__BEAM LOAD CALCULATION__

We follow the same method of above
column calculations.

We will
take that each meter of the beam has dimensions of 230 mm x 230 mm

**Note: Its Excluding The Slab Thickness.**

Volume of Concrete = 0.23 x
0.23 x 1 = 0.0529 m³

Weight of Concrete = 0.0529 x
2400 = 126.96 kg

Weight of Steel (3%) in
Concrete = = 0.0529 x 0.03 x 8000 = 12.696 kg

Total Weight of Column =
126.96 + 12.696 = 139.65 kg/m = 1.39 KN/m

**So,**

the self-weight of the column
(230mm x 230mm) will be around 1.5 kN per running meter.

__WALL LOAD CALCULATION__

**Assume we have,**

9 inch thick Brick wall

height - 3-meter

length - 1 meter

The load per running meter = 0.230
x 1 x 3 x 1500 = 1035 kg,

*Which
is equivalent to 10 kn/meter.*

This method can be used for
load calculations of any kind of Brick per running meter

if you are using these blocks
for construction, the wall loads per running meter can be as low as 4 kN/meter,
use of this block can significantly reduce the cost of the project.

The weight of aerated concrete blocks and autoclave concrete blocks per cubic meter can range from 700 to 550kg per cubic meter. This type of wall loads can be 4 kN / m per running meter

__SLAB LOAD CALCULATION__

Let, we will take the slab has
a thickness of 150 mm.

So, the Self-weight of each m^{2}
- square meter of the slab would be

= 0.150 x 1 x 2400 = 360 kg
which is equivalent to 3.6 kN.

Now, if we assume that the finished load is 1 kN per meter, and the exaggerated load is 2 kN per meter.

Therefore, from the above
data, slab loads ranging from 6.6 to 7.6 kN/m^{2} can be estimated.

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