Know How To Calculate Loads On Column, Beam, And Slab -lceted LCETED INSTITUTE FOR CIVIL ENGINEERS

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Feb 14, 2021

Know How To Calculate Loads On Column, Beam, And Slab

WHAT IS BEAM, COLUMN AND SLAB




 Definition of load in construction

 

The weight or force on a beam, joint, slab, column, etc. The load is the most important engineering factor when designing structural elements.

 

It can be a live load or a dead load.

 

Loads cause deformations, displacements and stresses, in structures

 

Load Calculation of Column, Beam, Wall, and Slab

 

Numbers of floors x Column’s self-weight

Self-weight of the Beam per running meter

load of Wall per running meter

Total load on Slab = Live load ( due to movement on human walk)+ Self Weight + Dead Load (like furniture and other things)

 

In addition to the above loads, the columns have bending moments so the some factors consider in the final design.


The most effective way to configure the framework is to use the advanced configuration software such as


The tools  Etabs and Staad pro make manual calculations for structural design time-consuming and avoid the difficult method. Today it is highly recommended in the field of the structural design.


But we will teach you some basic assumptions for structural load calculations.

 

COLUMN LOAD CALCULATION

As we know,

Self-weight of Concrete = 2400 kg/m3 = 240 kN

Self-weight of Steel is around 8000 kg/m3 = 800 kN


So,

We will take column size as 230 mm x 230 mm with 3 meters standard height and 2% steel, the self-weight of the column is around 1000 kg (10 kn) per floor.

 

Volume of Concrete = 0.23 x 0.23 x 3 = 0.1587 m³

Weight of Concrete = 0.1587 x 2400 = 380.88 kg

Weight of Steel (2%) in Concrete = 0.1587  x 0.02 x 8000 = 25.392kg

Total Weight of Column = 380.88  + 25.392 = 406.272kg = 4KN


Thus, we can assume the self weight of column size 230 mm x 230 mm is between 4 to 5 kn per floor.

 

FACTOR OF SAFETY

In conclusion, after calculating the full load on a column, do not forget to add the safety factor, which for any building designer is very important for the safe and comfortable performance of the building during his design lifetime.

 

This is important when calculating the load on the column.

 

According to IS456: 2000, the safety factor is 1.5.

 

BEAM LOAD CALCULATION

We follow the same method of above column calculations.

We will take that each meter of the beam has dimensions of 230 mm x 230 mm

Note: Its Excluding The Slab Thickness.


Volume of Concrete = 0.23 x 0.23 x 1 = 0.0529 m³

Weight of Concrete = 0.0529 x 2400 = 126.96 kg

Weight of Steel (3%) in Concrete = = 0.0529 x 0.03 x 8000 = 12.696 kg

Total Weight of Column = 126.96 + 12.696 = 139.65 kg/m = 1.39 KN/m


So,

the self-weight of the column (230mm x 230mm) will be around 1.5 kN per running meter.

 

WALL LOAD CALCULATION

Assume we have,

9 inch thick Brick wall

height - 3-meter

length - 1 meter

The load per running meter = 0.230 x 1 x 3 x 1500 = 1035 kg,

Which is equivalent to 10 kn/meter.


This method can be used for load calculations of any kind of Brick per running meter


if you are using these blocks for construction, the wall loads per running meter can be as low as 4 kN/meter, use of this block can significantly reduce the cost of the project.


The weight of aerated concrete blocks and autoclave concrete blocks per cubic meter can range from  700 to 550kg per cubic meter. This  type of wall loads can be 4 kN / m per running meter

 

SLAB LOAD CALCULATION

Let, we will take the slab has a thickness of 150 mm.

 

So, the Self-weight of each m2 - square meter of the slab would be

 

= 0.150 x 1 x 2400 = 360 kg which is equivalent to 3.6 kN.

 

Now, if we assume that the finished load is 1 kN per meter, and the exaggerated load is 2 kN per meter.

 

Therefore, from the above data, slab loads ranging from 6.6 to 7.6 kN/m2 can be estimated.

 

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