TYPES OF CONSTRUCTION EQUIPMENT - LCETED -lceted LCETED INSTITUTE FOR CIVIL ENGINEERS

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May 4, 2021

TYPES OF CONSTRUCTION EQUIPMENT - LCETED

 TYPES OF CONSTRUCTION EQUIPMENT

Depending on the application, construction machines are classified into various categories

1.   Earth Moving Equipment

2.   Construction Vehicles

3.   Material Handling Equipment

4.   Construction Equipment


CONSTRUCTION EQUIPMENT



“Heavy construction equipment is used for a variety of purposes in large projects. The choice of different types of heavy equipment depends on the size of the project work and economy. These make the construction process easier and faster”.

 

TYPES OF HEAVY CONSTRUCTION EQUIPMENT

The various types of heavy equipment commonly used in construction are as follows:

·       Excavators

·       Bulldozers

·       Backhoe

·       Pile Boring Machine

·       Pile Driving Machine

·       Dragline Excavator

·       Graders

·       Trenchers

·       Loaders

·       Wheel Tractor Scraper

·       Tower Cranes

·       Pavers

·       Compactors

·       Dump Trucks

·       Telehandlers

·       Feller Bunchers

 

1. Excavators

Excavations are important and widely used equipment in the construction industry. Their general purpose is excavation, but they are also used for many other purposes such as heavy lifting, demolition, river excavation, and felling trees. There is a long arm and cabinet in the excavations. The long arm is provided at the end of the digging bucket and the space provided to the machine operator is the cabinet. This entire cabin arrangement can be rotated up to 360°, which simplifies operation. Excavations are available in the form of wheeled and monitored vehicles.

Excavators



2. Bulldozers

Bulldozers are another type of soil excavation tool used to remove topsoil up to a certain depth. Soil removal is done with a wide metal plate with sharp edges provided on its front. This plate can be lowered and raised using hydraulic pistons. They are widely used for removing weak soil or rock layers and lifting soil.

Bulldozers



 

3. Backhoe

Backhoe is another widely used tool that is suitable for many purposes. The name implies that a spade arrangement is provided at the rear of the vehicle when loading the bucket. It is very useful for excavating trenches below mechanical level and for loading, unloading and lifting materials in front bucket

Backhoe



 

4. Pile Boring Machine

Pile boring equipment is used to drill holes in the construction site to install precast piles.

Pile Boring Machine


 

5. Pile Driving Equipment

Another heavy equipment used at the construction site is pile driving equipment during pile foundation construction. These tools lift the pile and keep it in the correct position and push it into the ground to the required depth. Different types of pile driving equipment are available, such as piling rig, piling hammer, hammer guides, etc. In any case the pile is injected into the ground, which is done hydraulically or by dropping the pile top with a hammer.

 

Pile Driving Equipment


6. Dragline Excavator

Dragline excavation is another heavy tool used in construction, which is commonly used for large depth excavation. It has a long lift and the bucket is stopped by digging from the top of the mount using cable. For construction of ports, underwater excavation, traction excavation in water bodies etc. can be done by dragline excavation.

Dragline Excavator

 

7. Graders

Graders, also known as motor graders, are another type of equipment used in construction, especially for laying roads. It is mainly used to level the soil surface. It has a horizontal blade between the front and rear wheels and this blade is lowered to the ground when working. The operating room is provided on top of the rear axle arrangement. Motor graders are used to remove snow or dirt from roads, flatten the surface of the soil and remove unwanted soil layer from the ground before laying the asphalt layer.

Graders

8. Trenchers

Trenches or trenching machines are used to excavate trenches in the soil. These trenches are commonly used for piping, cable laying and drainage purposes. Trench machines are available in two types as chain trenches and wheel trenches. The chain has a fixed long arm in the trench, around which the chain is provided by digging. There is a metal wheel in the wheel trench and you have to dig a tooth around it. Wheel trenches are ideal for excavating hard soil layers. Both types of trenches are available in tracked and wheeled vehicle forms.


Trenchers



9. Loaders

Loaders are used at the construction site to load materials on dumbers, trucks, etc. Materials may include excavated soil, demolition waste, raw materials, etc. A loader has a large bucket in front of it. The loader can be monitored or wheeled. Wheel loaders are widely used on platforms when tracked or crawling loaders are used on platforms inaccessible to wheelers.

 

Loaders


10. Wheel Tractor Scraper

Wheel tractor scrapers are a tool for moving the earth. The front has a wheel tractor vehicle and the rear has a horizontal front blade, conveyor belt and soil collecting hopper. When the front blade is lowered to the ground and the vehicle is moved, the blade begins to dig into the soil above blade level and the excavated soil is collected in the hopper by a conveyor belt. When the hopper is full, the rear section is raised off the ground and the hopper is unloaded in the mud dump yard.

Wheel Tractor Scraper


 

11. Tower Cranes

Tower cranes are fixed cranes that are used for suitable purposes in the construction of tall structures. Heavy objects such as pre-pressed concrete blocks, steel trusses, frames can be easily lifted to the required height using this type of equipment. They have a vertical sub-tower mast, which is the jib that drives the crane drive arm, the opposite arm which is the opposite weight on the rear side of the crane and is an operator cabin that can operate the crane.

Tower Cranes



12. Pavers

Paver or asphalt paver is a paving tool used in road construction. The paver consists of a feeding bucket in which the asphalt is constantly loaded by the dump truck and the paver distributes the asphalt evenly over the road surface. However a roller is required after laying the asphalt layer for proper compression.

Pavers




 

13. Compactors

Compactors or rollers are used to compress the surface of the material or earth. Different types of compactors are available for different compact purposes. Smooth wheels are used to compact shallow layers of soil or asphalt. Sheep-foot rollers are used for deep compression purposes. Pneumatic tread cylinders are used to dissolve fine-grained soils and asphalt layers.

Compactors


 

14. Dump Trucks

Dump trucks at construction sites are used to transport large quantities of goods from one site to another or to the dump yard. Typically, on large construction sites, off-road dump trucks are used. These off-road dump trucks have large wheels that have a large space for goods, which allows them to carry large quantities of goods in any ground conditions.



 

15. Telehandlers

Telehandlers are used to raise equipment used in construction to the required height or to provide a construction site for workers at higher altitudes. It has a long telescopic lift, which can be raised or lowered or sent. Different types of arrangements such as forklifts, buckets, cabin, lifting zips can be attached at the end of the telescope lift depending on the work requirement.

Telehandlers


 

16. Feller Bunchers

Heavy equipment for felling trees used to remove large trees in the construction industry. They uproot the tree without cutting it down, as well as collect all the felled trees in one place, which helps loaders and trucks.

Feller Bunchers

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