Basic Guide of Electrical House Wiring - LCETED - LCETED - LCETED Institute for Civil Engineers

## Apr 3, 2022

Let’s start

What is Electricity?

Electricity is a form of energy that results from the presence of charged particles (such as electrons or protons).

Current is the flow rate of an electric charge passing through a point or area. In electrical circuits, the current is often transmitted by electrons through wires.

Voltage, also called electromotive force, is the potential difference of voltage between two points in an electric field.

It results in Current

There are two types of current used widely:

 Alternating current, (AC) Direct current (DC), Alternating current in which the electric charge changes direction periodically Direct current (DC), in which electrons flow in one direction Applications: Household outlets are Alternating Current - household appliances, especially, such as lamps, washing machines, and refrigerators Applications: automotive applications, Batteries, aircraft applications and low current applications. DC power is widely used in low voltage. Solar panels produce DC power

IMPORTANCE OF ELECTRICITY

a)  Electricity has many uses in our daily lives. It is used for home appliances such as lighting rooms, working fans and electric stoves, AC and more.

b) Large machines In factories work on electricity.

c)  The facility cannot be imagined without electricity. All hospitals, railways, agriculture, cinema houses, entertainment, educational institutions, business and many more depend on electricity.

Therefore, electricity plays a vital role in the progress of any nation.

COMMON TERMS USED IN ELECTRICITY

Volts: Electromotive force or potential difference, expressed in volts (V)

Voltage: it is the difference in electric potential between two points. Current is just the rate of flow of electric charge

W: Watt is the unit of power.

It is named after James Watt, the inventor of the steam engine.

One watt is specified as the energy consumption rate of one joule per second. 1 Watt = 1 Joule per second

1W = 1J/1s

A watt is also defined as the current flow of an ampere with a voltage of one volt.

kW: 1000 Watt which means that 1 kW = 1000 J/s

kWh: A kilowatt-hour is a unit of energy equal to 3600 kilojoules (3.6 megajoules).

1 kWh equals one hour of electricity usage at a rate of 1 kW, and thus the 2 kW appliance would consume 2 kWh in one hour or 1 kWh in half an hour.

The equation is simply kW x time = kWh

The kilowatt-hour is generally used as the billing unit for the energy supplied to consumers by electrical applications.

MCB: Miniature circuit breaker: It automatically switches off the electrical circuit if it detects abnormal conditions or overload of the network.

MCB also used in low voltage electrical networks instead of a fuse.

SP-MCB: Single Pole Breaker: it is used with a typical 120v circuit, with one hot wire and one neutral wire.

DP-MCB: Double Pole Breaker: it is used with a typical 220v circuit (like for a dryer or heater) with two hot wires that are connected by a single neutral wire.

Based on the number of poles, the breakers are classified as:

 SP Single Pole SPN Single Pole and Neutral DP Double pole TP Triple Pole TPN Triple Pole and Neutral 4P Four Pole.

ELCB: Earth-Leakage Circuit Breaker (ELCB): It is a safety device used in electrical installations with high earth resistance to prevent shock. It detects small fault voltages in the metal casing of electrical equipment and can interfere with the circuit if a dangerous voltage is detected.

CIRCUIT

The following load points are usually given to each room:

Tube lights, fan, light points, sockets, TV, AC etc.

Each load/point (on | off) is controlled by its switch connected to the wire, MCB, fuse etc.

Types of Circuit

Open circuit: When the switch is not closed the circuit will be open and the light in this circuit will be turned OFF.

Closed-circuit: The circuit is closed when the switch is closed, now the lamp is ON

Short circuit: When any (+) wire or (-) wire breaks and it is connected to the opposite pole, that circuit is called a short circuit. This is an unusual condition and does not want to happen in any electrical circuit. Without the right choice of protection, lights, wires, switches, sockets etc. can be damaged.

 PVC wires 1mm2, 1.5mm2, 2.5mm2, 4.00mm2, 6.00mm2, 10.00mm2 MCB distribution Board: 4-way, 8-way, 10-way, 12-way 16-way configurations MCB’s: 6 A, 16 A, 20 A, 25 A, 32 A, 40 A, 45 A, 50 A, 63 A, 80 A, 100 A, 125 A, 225 A, 600 A, 800 A, 1600 A, 2000 A, 3000 A, 3200 A, 4000 A, 5000 A, 6000 A (SP/SPN) Types of MCB based on Number of Poles •Single Pole (SP) MCB •Double Pole (DP) MCB •Triple Pole (TP) MCB •Three Pole with Neutral [TPN (3P+N) MCB] •Four Pole (4P) MCB RCCB or ELCB 16A, 25A, 32A Switches 1-way, 2-Way Switch 5 Amp, 10 Amp, 15 Amp, 20 Amp Sockets 2 pin, 5 Pin, 6 Pin 5 Amp, 16 Amp, 20A, 25A, 32A Isolator Single Phase Isolator Double Phase Isolator Energy meter Single phase energy meter Three-phase energy meter

Items: Neutral link, Earth rod, Lugs

FUNCTIONS OF DIFFERENT ITEMS USED IN HOUSE WIRING

Residual Current Circuit Breaker (RCCB)/ Earth Leakage Circuit Breaker (ELCB)

SPD - Surge Protection Devices

Energy Meter

What are Watt, Kilowatt? kVAh and a unit of electricity?

How To Calculate Electricity Bill?

How to Calculate Electricity Bill from Meter Reading?

The Energy meter is fitted by the state government to charge the electricity used by the consumer. The unit rate is set by the government.

The units are consumed by the consumer according to their requirement load needed and has pay to the government.

1 Unit = 1000 Watt

1000 Watt x 1 hr or 1 kwh

Consider we have,

Ceiling fans - (6Nos. x 100W each) x 10 hrs = 6000 Wh

Tube Lights - (8 Nos. x 40 W each) x 10 hrs =  3200 Wh

Geyser - (1 No. x 1500 W) x 1 hr = 1500 Wh

A/c - (1 No. x 750 W) x 1 hr = 750 Wh

Total watts = 11450 Wh | 11.45 kwh | 11.45 units

Take Unit Rate is 8₹ - Note rate changes based on sector (residential and industry sector)

Per day Expense: (11.45 units x 8₹) = 91.6₹

Monthly Expense: (91.6₹ x 31 days) = 2839.6 ₹

Single Pole and Neutral Miniature Circuit Board (SPN MCB) or Double Pole (DP)

Single-pole breakers: its provides 15-20 amps - 120 volts and have one phase wire and one neutral wire.

Double-pole breakers: its provides 20-60 amps - 240 volts and have two-phase wires that share one neutral wire.

Isolator

The circuit breaker always trips the circuit but when the breaker is in open contact it cannot be seen from the outside of the breaker, which is why it is considered the "don’t touch" part of the circuit. Therefore, isolators are made for protection so that one can see the condition of the circuit before touching it. The isolator is a switch that isolates part of the circuit system when needed. Electrical isolators are a separate part of the system designed for safe maintenance. Isolators are commonly used to repair or replace the end of a breaker.

There is no tripping arrangement in this device, so no protection can be achieved from the isolator. As its name is an isolator, it can switch ON & OFF load just like ordinary switches do

Electrical Wires - Poly Vinyl Chloride (PVC)

Sizes 1mm2, 1.5mm2, 2.5mm2, 4.00mm2, 6.00mm2, 10.00mm2 .It is suggested to use always branded, ISI marked wires only and cheap wires should not be used.

Electrical Conduit Pipes

Electrical conduit pipe used to pull wire without getting damaged, to various parts of the house through the ceiling, walls, floor etc.

Generally, 25 mm heavy duty (ISI marked) pipe should be installed in the slab construction. If neglected, cracks can occur in the pipe

For walls, medium weight pipe can be used to reduce the expense.

USES OF ELECTRICAL ACCESSORIES

6amp switch - Light Points, Fan Points, Etc.

6amp 5-pin socket - LED TV, chimney, exhaust fan, refrigerator, iron, washing machine, charging mobile, etc.

16A-20A switch |16A-20A 6-pin socket - geyser point, heavy washing machine, AC load etc.

Fan regulator - Control the speed of the fan.

Cover plate - Cover all the sockets, switches, etc.

Dumpy plate - Cover the excess point in the switch box

2-way switches - staircase light control | entry gate lights.

Things to check on Electrical Material – Site Engineer

a)   All accessories must be ISI coded, branded, good looking, and chosen by the owner.

b)  After completing wiring connections, be sure to check again if there are any loose connections. The function of all points, MCB tripping and ELCB function should also be checked.

c)   Unwanted nails, screws, and wires cut should be removed to avoid any injury.

d)  Every metal & switch box should be linked with Earthing for human safety.

e)  Mark room-wise location in MCB-distribution box

SINGLE-PHASE LINE WIRING INSTALLATION IN HOUSE

WHAT IS EARTHING? | USES | TYPES

LIST OF ELECTRICAL MATERIALS

WIRE SIZING AND MCB SELECTION FOR RESIDENTIAL BUILDING

THANKS